When making first contact with the administration panel of Atlassian JIRA it is quite hard to distinguish between the different schemes and underlying concepts. Atlassian itself provides only a textual description that work well as reference but not as initial lecture to get an overview. Only for Fields and Screens and their interconnectinos there is a diagram within the documentation: Configuring Fields and Screens.
For my personal needs I was always looking for a graphical overview that provides a quick and rough overview for administrative tasks. Not having found any such diagram I developed a diagram that shows the main concepts and how they are connected to other JIRA concepts. If you want to print that diagram, you may use the PDF version.
(With special thanks to Gretchen Jones who helped me with the translation and encouraged me finalizing the english version!)